Post Excavation

Analysis of archaeological finds uncovered following excavation   What is Post Excavation? This is the processes of analysis and interpretation that is done after the digging has finished. Excavations usually uncover finds, physical items such as potsherds, metallic objects or glass. To comply with good practice and planning policy guidelines these need to be properly analysed and archived. How is Post Excavation done? Uncovered items are cleaned, catalogued, and sent for specialist assessment and analysis. Samples of features are often taken by the on-site archaeologists and sent for processing in a laboratory as they may contain artefacts too small to […]

Watching Brief

Low-impact archaeological monitoring of groundworks on site   What is a Watching Brief? An archaeological watching brief will be carried out as a condition of planning consent as requested by the Local Planning Authority on sites where a potential for buried archaeology has been identified. The principle of the watching brief is to maintain an archaeological site presence commensurate with the scale of development groundworks to identify any buried archaeology exposed during the development and treat it accordingly. How is a Watching Brief done? The site archaeologist will monitor the developers groundworks contractor during excavations, normally in specific areas previously […]

Strip and Map

Targeted excavation to uncover, record and remove suspected archaeological remains   What is Strip and Map? A method of partial excavation carried out over large areas of land, where archaeological remains are believed to exist but their type is unidentified. It is often much more cost-effective than full excavation. How is Strip and Map done? Stripping refers to the removal of topsoil, typically with a mechanical excavator. Suspected archaeological features are then cleaned by the archaeologists, removing loose material and exposing a fresh surface. After this, the mapping process is where the remains are photographed, drawn and described. Any finds […]

Fieldwalking and Walkover Survey

Non-intrusive survey of a site to evaluate the archaeological potential and identify any potential risks as early as possible.   What is Fieldwalking or a Walkover Survey? Field walking and walkover surveys can be carried out as part of non-intrusive investigations on a site to try and identify upstanding features or discrete areas of finds assemblages. The two approaches differ in their methodology but are both often carried out as elements of wider pre-planning determination investigations. How are they done? The field walking will involve a team of archaeologists following set transects across fields at pre-defined spacings. Finds will be […]


Effective non-intrusive method to evaluate buried archaeology and warn of potential risks to development   What is Geophysics? Geophysics or geographical survey is a valuable tool used in advance of intrusive techniques. It can establish the nature and extent of buried archaeology faster and more economical than trial trenching. Based on identifying and assessing geophysical anomalies in the soil, the production of a broad picture of embedded features across a site can help to ascertain the state of archaeological preservation. This targets and potentially reduces further investigation. How is it done? Effective geophysical survey depends on the nature of the […]


Efficiently recording and removing archaeology to make way for development   What is Archaeological Excavation? The physical component is an intrusive programme of controlled fieldwork with specific research objectives to examine the archaeological remains and features of a site. Open excavation is used as a method of ‘preservation by record’, providing a comprehensive picture of how the site developed. This is documented through photographs, drawings and written reports. How is Excavation done? Before the archaeological field team begin on site, L – P work with clients to assess the scope and ensure smooth project management across all connected processes. Our […]


Evaluation is used to find out whether there are archaeological remains on a site or not and if there are, the aim is to try to understand what these remains are and how important they are. The goal of evaluation is to glean enough information from the site in as quick and efficient a manner as possible so that everyone involved can make informed judgements about what to do next.